The Crusades



Despite calls by the new Pope Gregory X for another crusade at the Council of Lyon in 1274, support was largely nonexistent. Shortly after this time, Charles of Anjou took impetus from disagreements between the Venetians, Hugh III of Cyprus and the Templars to make himself King of Jerusalem. He attacked Hugh in Cyprus, and in 1277 he had control of Acre. Calls from Venice began for a crusade against Constantinople and the re-established Byzantine Empire, a view shared by Pope Martin IV in 1282. The disastrous endeavour was the last crusade against Christian or Moslem by the Catholic forces.

In 1289, Sultan Qulawun amassed a large army and conquered what remained of the County of Tripoli. The crusader resurgence was impressive, and the setback cost the Sultan two years. In 1291 pilgrims at Acre came under attack and were besieged. While Qulawun died in the siege the fall of Acre marked the fall of the last remaining crusader state and effectively the end of the crusades in the Middle East.