Henry III

Richard, Earl of Cornwall

Henry’s younger brother, Richard, was made Earl of Cornwall in 1225 and was a key supporter – and at times critic – of Henry throughout his reign, not least concerning the reforms of 1258–65 that witnessed the Provisions of Oxford – in some ways the successor to Magna Carta – as well as the Second Barons’ War, 1264–67. In 1257, seven years after the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, Richard was crowned King of the Romans. He still holds the distinction of being the only English noble to ever sit on the throne of a foreign power.

Both men were born at Winchester Castle and baptised at nearby St Swithun’s. Tintagel Castle became Richard’s property as part of the Earldom of Cornwall, and he added many of its key features. As founder of Hailes Abbey, he was also responsible for much of its early development.